Candidemia Surveillance


Candida spp. are invasive fungal pathogens that can cause severe bloodstream infections (BSI) or candidemia among hospitalized patients. CEIP conducts surveillance for BSIs caused by Candida spp. or candidemia, as well as associated outcomes among patients.


  1. To describe the incidence of candidemia in the United States utilizing active, population-based, laboratory surveillance.
  2. To describe the species distribution of Candida spp. causing candidemia in the surveillance catchment area.
  3. To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for antifungal drug resistance among Candida spp. bloodstream isolates.
  4. To describe treatment and outcomes of candidemia, including time to initiation of treatment, type of treatment, time to clearance of infection, morbidity and mortality, and associated factors, among patients with candidemia.


Main Components

The main component of the Candida spp. surveillance project is active, laboratory-based surveillance in Alameda County hospitals. Surveillance Officers will collect patient information from medical records using standardized data collection forms. Blood cultures positive for Candida spp. will be transported from participating hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for further testing.

Case Definition

Surveillance will be conducted for all Alameda County residents who have a positive blood culture for any Candida spp. An incident case of candidemia is defined as the isolation of Candida spp. from blood from a resident of Alameda County on or after January 1, 2017.



Kao, A. S., Pruitt, M. W., Conn, L. A., Perkins, B. A., Stephens, D. S., Baughman, W. S., Reingold, A. L., Rothrock, G. A., Pfaller, M. A., Pinner, R. W., Hajjeh, R. A. (1999). The Epidemiology of Candidemia in Two United States Cities: Results of a Population-Based Active Surveillance. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 29(5), 1164-1170. doi:


For questions about Candida spp. surveillance and projects, please contact:

Joelle Nadle, MPH
Project Coordinator, HAIC