Staphylococcus aureus (SA)


Staphylococcus aureus
Credit – NIAID_Flickr Photostream


CEIP conducts surveillance for invasive SA through Healthcare-associated Infections surveillance.  For each case of invasive disease in the study population, CEIP generates a case report with basic demographic information.


  • Evaluate changes in national incidence estimates of hospital-onset (HO), healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO), and community-associated (CA) invasive infections with SA
  • Identify new populations at risk for invasive SA disease
  • Describe the molecular and microbiologic characteristics of hospital-onset (HO), healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO) and community-associated (CA) SA

Main Components

The main components of SA surveillance are active laboratory-based surveillance and special studies.


Case Definition

A case of invasive SA disease is defined as isolation of SA from a normally sterile site in a resident of the three-county catchment area. This includes both Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and, starting January 1, 2016, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Normally sterile sites include: blood, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, surgical aspirate, bone, or joint fluid.

Data Overview

Yearly surveillance reports for pathogens under surveillance are available in PDF format at CDC’s ABCs Surveillance Reports site.

Completed Projects

Risk Factors for Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections among Recently Discharged Patients

A matched case-control study at selected facilities in seven EIP sites among patients who develop invasive MRSA infections as outpatients within 12 weeks of most recent hospital discharge. The objectives of the study are to:

  • obtain enhanced clinical and epidemiologic description of patients who developed invasive MRSA infection within 12 weeks post-discharge
  • identify risk factors for invasive MRSA infection post-discharge, including those present during most recent hospitalization as well as those from the time of hospital discharge to onset of invasive MRSA infection
  • identify subset of patients that may benefit from targeted interventions
  • identify modifiable risk factors for invasive MRSA infection independent of MRSA carrier (sub-study)


Isaac See, Paul Wesson, Nicole Gualandi, Ghinwa Dumyati, Lee H. Harrison, Lindsey Lesher, Joelle Nadle, Susan Petit, Claire Reisenauer, William Schaffner, Amy Tunali, Yi Mu, and Jennifer Ahern.  Socioeconomic Factors Explain Racial Disparities in Invasive Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease Rates. Clin Infect Dis. 2017:64.

Dantes R, Mu Y, Belflower R, Aragon D, Dumyati G, Harrison L, Lessa F, Lynfield R, Nadle J, Petit S, Ray S; Schaffner W, Townes J, Fridkin S for the Emerging Infections Program–Active Bacterial Core Surveillance MRSA Surveillance Investigators. National burden of invasive Methicillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus infections, United States, 2011.  JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173(21):1970-1978. doi:10.100 1/jamainternmed.2013.10423.

Duffy J, Dumyati G, Bulens S, Namburi S, Gellert A, Fridkin SK, Lessa FC. Community-onset invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections following hospital discharge. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41(9):782-6,

Iwamoto M, Mu Y, Lynfield R, Bulens, SN, Nadle J, Aragon D, Petit S, Ray SM, Harrison LH, Dumyati G, Townes JM, Schaffner W, Gorwitz RJ, Lessa FC. Trends in Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Pediatrics. 2013;132(40):e817-24.

Nguyen DB, Lessa FC, Belflower R, Mu Y, Wise M, Nadle J, Bamberg WM, Petit S, Ray SM, Harrison LH, Lynfield R, Dumyati G, Thompson J, Schaffner W, Patel PR; for the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) MRSA Investigators of the Emerging Infections Program. Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections aAmong Chronic Dialysis Patients in the United States, 2005-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1393-400.

Tosh PK, Bulens SN, Nadle J, Dumyati G, Lynfield R, Schaffner W, Ray S, Seema J, Fridkin SK, Sievert DM.  Characterization of Hospitalized Community-Onset Staphylococcus aureus Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Among Generally Healthy Persons 50 years of Age or Younger. Infect Dis Clin Prac.2013;21:359-65.

Pasutti L, Nadle J, Williamson A, Reingold A. Trends in invasive infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three San Francisco Bay Area counties, 2005-2011. Poster 1557 presented at: ID Week 2012. 1st Annual Joint Meeting of ISDA, SHEA, HIVMA, and PIDS; 2012 Oct 16-21; San Diego, CA.



For questions about SA surveillance and projects, please contact:

Joelle Nadle, MPH
Project Coordinator, HAIC